Objectives That Students Understand: Robert Marzano, Educational Leadership May 2011 Writing instructional objectives can yield positive or negative results. Marzano  defines ineffective and effective practice in this two page summary.

Giving Feedback That Empowers Students- summary from Marshall Memo by Frey and Fisher: 16 May  2011

Getting Clear on Goals-summary from Marshall Memo by Steve Benjamin: 16 May 2011

Power Point  for Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback (PDF version) Researcher John Hattie (1992) says, "The most powerful, single modification that enhances achievement is feedback.  The simplest prescription for improving education must be 'dollops of feedback."" This short power point provides reseach supporting his idea and rubrics to assess effective uses of feedback.

Washingtion teachers, Patty O. Flynn and Peter Knowles particiated in the Sustainable Classroom Project using technology to implement setting objectives and providing feedback.  They use a wireless response system and a document camera to deliver their content.  In seven out of nine classrooms, 80% of students reported that using these strategies helped them understand key ideas in the content areas represented.

Video example from ESD 112 in a high school AP math class 

Video example from ESD 112 in a high school history class


Six Characteristics of Effective Feedback Jan Chappuis Marshall Memo September 2012

Dylan William on Getting Feedback Right Marshall Memo September 2012

Seven Keys to Effective Feedback, Grant Wiggins, ASCD September 2012 pages 10-16

 Helpful, Learning Focused Feedback Susan Brookhart Marshall Memo September 2012

Making Feedback to Students Effective John Hattie Marshall Memo September 2012

Working Smart with Corrective Feedback: Douglas Fisher & Nancy Frey, Summary Marshall Memo September 2012 

Fostering A Growth Mindset: Carol Dweck Summary Marshall Memo November 2010

To Differentiate or Not to Differentiate; That is the Question: Daniel Wellington & David Daniel Summary Marshall Memo February 2012

Starting the Conversation About Grading: Susan M. Brookhart, ASCD November 2011

Reporting Student Learning: Ken O'Conner & Rick Wormeli, ASCD November 2011